Category "Technology"

Python Selenium Time Tkinter Pyvirtualdisplay

- - Applications, Python, Technology, Web
Making use of libraries available and building something useful has always been my favorite. However, I haven’t yet been involved in making/contributing to one. I don’t even know the procedure to be involved in building libraries. My latest program also makes use of various libraries such as selenium, time, tkinter. In a nutshell, the program fetches jokes from and displays a message box with a joke in a timely interval. I usually run the program while I am at work(internship). I’ve set 10 minutes interval between the jokes to be shown. By the way, I used time module and it’s time.sleep(time_in_seconds) method for dealing with intervals between each message box to appear. The program isn’t full fledged and you can make additions to it on your own for customization according to your need. I made use of selenium module along with pyvirtualdisplay to fetch the jokes and mute the display of the browser, since it would be distracting. The program only fetches 20 latest jokes from and periodically displays one at a time in a messagebox. A little humor is always good at work. Anyway that’s my personal thought you may disagree to. I used tkinter module for displaying the message box. That’s all about the program. Have a look at the codes. Thank god, the import statements < program statements.

Python codes to get timely jokes

import tkinter
import tkinter.messagebox as mbox
from time import sleep
from selenium import webdriver
from pyvirtualdisplay import Display

display = Display(visible=0, size=(800, 600))
browser = webdriver.Firefox()

#print("finding jokes")
jokes = [str(joke.text) for joke in browser.find_elements_by_xpath("//div/p[starts-with(@id,'joke_')]")]


window = tkinter.Tk()

for joke in jokes:
    mbox.showinfo('Bored? Enjoy the JOk3!', joke)

Thank you for spending your time here. I have always tried to make my articles short and maybe now succeeded. You can utilize the saved time for another read in this blog, may be :p .Tell me how you felt the article was in the comments section below. This keeps me motivated to publish good content.

Cryptography With An Interpreter

- - Python, Technology, Tutorials, Web
Hey Guys, it’s been a long time since I published my last article. Apologies for the delay. Anyway, straight into the topic, Cryptography. Well, cryptography with python. This semester(V of Bsc CS) I choose Cryptography as an elective over Neural Network and I am enjoying it. So far I have learned Ceasar Cipher, Playfair Cipher, Vigenere Cipher, Vernom Cipher, Hill Cipher and Rail Fence Cipher. It’s just the beginning anyway. I have implemented these learnings via python programming language. Here is link to the github repository containing the implementations. The repo will be updated as I go further into learning throughout the semester.

Quick walk

Cryptography is the science that is used to hide the information. Mathematically defined as a tuple of five members (M, C, E, D, K) where,

M → Message (Plain Text)

C → Cipher Text

K → Set of Keys

E → Encryption Algorithm E: M*K → C

D → Decryption Algorithm D: C*K → M

On the other hand, cryptanalysis is the study of cipher systems with the view of finding the weaknesses in them that will enable us to retrieve the plain text.

Furthermore, ciphers can be classified into various types based on their properties. Well cipher in general is an algorithm to perform encryption and decryption. We could group Substitution and Transposition into Historical ciphers. Substitution cipher may further be monoalphabetic or polyalphabetic. Modern ciphers are either based on input data or based on key. Stream cipher and Block cipher are the types of modern cipher based on input data. Based on key there are symmetric(private) and asymmetric(public) ciphers.

Following are one of the implementations of ciphers I’ve learned so far. For complete package, follow this link to the repository.

Vernom Cipher

#sample plain text : hello
#sample key : axhjb

def make_chunks(text, text_length, key_length):
    for i in range(0, text_length, key_length):
        yield text[i : i + key_length]

def encryptdecrypt(cipher_generator):
    final_text = ""
    for item in cipher_generator:
        for i in range(0, len(item)):
            final_text += alphabets[alphabets.index(key[i]) ^ alphabets.index(item[i])]
    return final_text

alphabets = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"

plain_text = raw_input("Enter the plain text: ")

key = raw_input("Enter the key: ")

plain_text = plain_text.replace(" ", "")

p_generator = make_chunks(plain_text, len(plain_text), len(key))

cipher_text = encryptdecrypt(p_generator)

print "The cipher text is : ", cipher_text

c_generator = make_chunks(cipher_text, len(cipher_text), len(key))

decrypted_text = encryptdecrypt(c_generator)

print "The decrypted text is : ", decrypted_text

Tell me how you felt the article was in the comments section below or shoot me a message at . And there is always thanks for reading. Cheers ????

Finding Facebook Fanpage Of Startups Selenium And Facepy Usage

As a regular activity of the Software Club at my college, we have a weekly meetups where we discuss various ideas and code anything that is possible within an hour or so. We make groups of 3 or 4 and each group works on different ideas. At this point I really feel tech giants(Google, FB, etc…) should also consider colleges at Nepal and similar countries for their internship programs. Yesterday(Jan 3), we discussed several ideas and my group worked on something cool too. However, I will only talk about my portion.

In a nutshell, I extracted all the startups in Nepal and found their facebook page. The data was then used by other members in my group to do something cool which I can’t discuss here.

Extract startups in Nepal and find FB page

from selenium import webdriver
from facepy import GraphAPI
import json
import time 

startup_fan_pages = {}

access_token = "access_token"   # get it here

graph = GraphAPI(access_token)

browser = webdriver.Firefox()

time.sleep(40) #wait for the browser to completely load the page

startups = browser.find_elements_by_class_name("panel-title") #returns a list of objects having class="panel-title"
print("startups found")

for startup in startups:
    r =, "page", page=False, retry=3) #page=False is to refuse to get a generator, 
    if len(r['data']) > 0:
        startup_fan_pages[r['data'][0]['name']] = str(r['data'][0]['id'])

with open('startupsinnepalfanpages.json', 'w') as fp:
    json.dump(startup_fan_pages, fp) is a listing of all the startups in Nepal. I used selenium to extract all the startups from the website. In order to find their corresponding facebook fan page, I made use of facepy which allows an easy and quick way to make queries to the Graph API. All you need is the access token which you can get from

In the real implementation the data is stored in a google spreadsheet so it is available to the other portion of the program to do further computation. If you are interested on how to push data to spreadsheet via python, go ahead and read Grab alexa rank and write to google spreadsheet using python. Keep the comments coming and please don’t use adblockers(Adsense is the only source for this site’s income), it keeps me motivated to publish good content.